Name: 
 

AP CS Principles Midterm Study Guide



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Under which of the following conditions is it most beneficial to use a heurisitic approach to solve a problem
a.
When the problem can be solved in areasonable time and an approximate solution is acceptable
c.
When the problem cannot be solved in a reasonable time and an approximate solution is acceptable
b.
When the problem can be solved in a reasonable time and an exact solution is needed
d.
When the solution cannot be solved in a reasonable time and an exact solution is needed
 

 2. 

The colors of the pixels in a digital image are often represented by red, green, and blue values between 0 and 255 (an RGB triplet). A photographer is manipulating a digital image to lighten it because all of the RGB values in the image are less than 100, making it very dark. He does this by adding 20 to the R, G, and B values of each pixel, then overwriting the original image. What type of transformation is the photographer using on the digital image?
a.
Lossless transformation
c.
Multiband transformation
b.
Lossy Transformation
d.
Chrome Sampling transformation
 

 3. 

Which of the following is a true statement about data compression?
a.
Data compression is only useful for files being transmitted over the internet.
c.
Sending a compressed version of a file ensures tha tthe contents of the file cannot be intercepted by an unauthorized user
b.
Regradless of the compression technique used, once a data file is compressed, it cannot be restored to its original state
d.
There are trade-offs involved in choosing a compression technique for storing and transmitting data
 

 4. 

A video-streaming Web site uses 32-bit integers to count the number of times each video has been played. In anticipation of some videos being played more times than can be represented with 32 bits, the Web site is planning to change to 64-bit integers for the counter. Which of the following best describes the result of using 64-bit integers instead of 32-bit integers?
a.
2 times as many values can be represented
c.
2^32 times as many values can be represented
b.
32 times as many values can be represented
d.
32^2 times as many values can be represented
 

 5. 

Select the answer that lists the units of bytes in ascneding order(from smallest to largest)
a.
gigabyte, megabyte, terabyte
c.
gigabyte, terabyte, megabyte
b.
megabyte, terabyte, kilobyte
d.
kilobyte, gigabyte, terabyte
 

 6. 

An artist makes an RGB raster image in which each pixel color is encoded with 12-bits --- 4 bits each for red, green and blue.

Which of the following correctly shows the hexadecimal value for Red as a 12-bit representation.
a.
F00
c.
FF00
b.
00F
d.
FF0000
 

 7. 

A compression scheme for long strings of bits called run-length encoding is described as follows:

Rather than record each 0 and 1 individually, instead record “runs” of bits by storing the number of consecutive 1s and 0s that appear.

Since it’s binary, any run of 0s must be followed by a run of 1s (even if the run is only 1-bit long) and vice versa. Thus, you can store a list of small numbers that represents the alternating runs of 0s and 1s. Here is an example:

mc007-1.jpg

To uncompress the data back into its original binary state, you simply reverse the process. This technique is an example of what type of compression?
a.
Lossy Compression
c.
Fast Fourier Transform Compression
b.
Lossless compression
d.
Tailored Compression
 

 8. 

A raw digital sound file samples a sound wave at some interval and measures the height of the wave at each point. Thus, raw sound is recorded as a list of numbers.

In very broad terms the MP3 audio compression algorithm identifies frequencies and volume levels - low and high - that are outside the range of human hearing and removes the data representing these frequencies from the original. This technique results in a smaller audio file that sounds exactly the same to the human ear.

This technique is an example of what type of compression?
a.
Lossy Compression
c.
Fast Fourier Transform Compression
b.
Lossless Compression
d.
Tailored Compression
 

 9. 

Approximately how much bigger (how many more bytes) is a megabyte than a kilobyte?
a.
1,000 times bigger
c.
1,000,000 times bigger
b.
100,000 times bigger
d.
1,000,000,000 times bigger
 

 10. 

The image below shows an encoding for a black and white pixel image. The first two bytes of the data (circled in red) are used to encode the width and height of the image.

What is the best term for this type of "data about the data"?
mc010-1.jpg
a.
megadata
c.
metadata
b.
superdata
d.
predata
 

 11. 

Biologists often attach tracking collars to wild animals. For each animal, the following geolocation data is collected at frequent intervals.

The time
The date
The location of the animal

Which of the following questions about a particular animal could NOT be answered using only the data collected from the tracking collars?
a.
Approximately how many miles did the animal travel in one week?
c.
Do the movement patterns of the animal vary according to the weather?
b.
Does the animal travel in groups with other tracked animals?
d.
In what geographical locations does the animal typically travel?
 

 12. 


A bakery collects data on sales. Each sales record includes the date of the sale and some metadata about the items that were part of the sale. The data includes: the names of the items sold, the types of items sold, the number of each item sold, and the price of each item sold. Which of the following CANNOT be determined from the bakery's data set?
a.
The total income from sales the bakery received in the past month.
c.
The item bought in the highest quantity in the past week.
b.
Which customer most frequently purchases bread.
d.
Days when certain items sell the most.
 

 13. 


Consider the following numbers given in Binary (BIN), Decimal (DEC), and Hexadecimal (HEX) representations:

BIN: 1110

DEC: 13

HEX: F

Which of the following lists the numbers in order from least to greatest?
a.
BIN:1110, DEC 13, HEX F
c.
DEC 13, HEX F, BIN 1110
b.
DEC 13, BIN 1110, HEX F
d.
HEX F, DEC 13, BIN 1110
 

 14. 

A programmer is writing a system that is intended to be able to store large amounts of personal data. As the programmer develops the data system, which of the following is LEAST likely to impact the programmer's choices in designing the structure of the system?
a.
Maintaining privacy of the information stored in the data set.
c.
Structuring the metadata of the information for analysis
b.
Scalability of the system
d.
The frequency of a particular item occurring in a data set
 

 15. 

A certain social media Web site allows users to post messages and to comment on other messages that have been posted. When a user posts a message, the message itself is considered data. In addition to the data, the site stores the following meta data.

The time the message was posted
The name of the user who posted the message
The names of any users who comment on the message and the times the comments were made

For which of the following goals would it be more useful to analyze the data instead of the metadata?
a.
To determine the users who post messages most frequently
c.
To determine the topics that many users are posting about
b.
To determine the time of day that the site is most active
d.
To determine which posts from a particular user have received the greatest number of comments
 

 16. 

The Chart below from Google Trends shows the prevelance of some search terms in the United States between 2004 and the present. Which of the following is the most accurate statement of what this chart is showing.

mc016-1.jpg
a.
Since sometime around 2009, red has become the favorite color of more people
c.
The general decline in the search term “yellow” might be due to the decline of searches for yellow taxis, as car sharing services have become more popular
b.
Generally speaking, since 2009 more people use “red” in their search terms more than they use “blue”, “yellow”, “green”, or “purple”
d.
Generally speaking, the volume of internet searches is increasing over time because the number of people using the internet is also increasing.
 

 17. 

The AP CS Principles framework contains the following statement:

7.1.1G Search trends are predictors.

Which of the following is the most accurate statement about using search trends as predictors of future events?
a.
Search trends are imperfect predictors of future events that fully represent society at large.
c.
Search trends are imperfect predictors of future events that many not fully represent society at large.
b.
Search trends are accurate and reliable predictors of future events that fully represent society at large
d.
Search trends are accurate and reliable predictors of future events that many not fully represent society at large
 

 18. 

The next 3 questions all refer to data collected in a hypothetical survey of high school seniors, and a student, Amara, who is working with this data.

The survey of high school seniors asked:

What state do you live in?
How likely are you to attend college in your home state? (on a scale of 1-5, 5 meaning "very likely")
What do you plan to study?
Amara does an initial computation on the data to make a summary table. A small segment is shown below.
mc018-1.jpg
Amara is tasked with cleaning the data to prepare it for further analysis. Which of the following would be the least appropriate modifications to make to the data to prepare it for further analysis?
a.
Translate all states into their two-letter state code
c.
Round up all non-integer alues for Likelihood of staying in state
b.
Group similar areas of study into a single area of study. For example, grouping Applied Mathematics and Mathematics together into “Mathematics”
d.
Remove the entire row with home state “adsfas” and recomputing
 

 19. 

This question refers to the same data from the High School Survey about college plans from the previous question.

Amara plans to use the survey data to create a visualization and short write up about students’ plans for college, but first she wants to learn more about how the survey was conducted. Of the following things she might learn about the survey, which is the most likely source of bias in the results based how it was collected?
a.
She learns that the survey administrators only asked a representative sample of students, rather than every student in each state
c.
She learns that the survey was accessible on library computers if students did not have their own.
b.
She learns the responses are collected only by mobile app
d.
She learns the survey was available to complete in both digital and paper form
 

 20. 

This question refers to the same data from the High School Survey about college plans from the previous question.

Amara decides to make a visualization of a portion of the responses showing only a few states and a few areas of study. She wants to make an effective visualization that shows for comparison: Students' average likelihood of attending college in-state broken down by which state they live in and what they plan to major in. For example, in Illinois (IL) on average students who want to study economics are very likely to say they want to attend college in-state.

Amara makes four different visualizations shown below (marked A, B, C, D). According to good principles of visualization, and for what Amara wants to show, which one of these would be considered the best visual representation?
mc020-1.jpg
a.
Chart A
c.
Chart C
b.
Chart B
d.
Chart D
 

 21. 

What is the best explanation for why digital data is represented in computers in binary?
a.
The binary number system is the only system flexible enough to allow for representing data other than number
c.
It’s impossible to build a computing machine that uses anything but binary to represent numbers
b.
As a consequence of history: early pioneers of computing were making secret codes in binary, and this simply evolved into modern computing.
d.
It’s easier, cheaper, and more reliable to build machines and devices that only have to distinguised between binary states.
 

 22. 

What is the 4-bit binary number for the decimal number Ten?
a.
0010
c.
0110
b.
1010
d.
0101
 

 23. 

What is the minimum number of bits you would need to encode the 26 letters of the alphabet plus a space; a total of 27 characters?
a.
3 bits
c.
5 bits
b.
4 bits
d.
6 bits
 

 24. 

Number systems with different bases such as binary (base-2), octal (base-8), decimal(base-10), and hexadecimal (base-16), are all used to view and represent digital data.

Which of the following is NOT true about representing digital data?
a.
At one of the lowest levels of abstraction, all digital data can be represented in binary using only combinations of the digtis zero and one.
c.
Binary can be used to represent more complex, higher level abstractions, including but not limited to numbers, characters, and colors.
b.
The number system you use to view data has no effect on the underlying digital data
d.
When data is large enough computers switch to using decimal representation instead of binary, because you can represent larger numbers with fewer digits.
 

 25. 

Consider the following three binary numbers:
01010
010000
1110
Which of the following lists the numbers in order from least to greatest?
a.
010000     1110     01010
c.
01010     010000     1110
b.
01010     1110     010000
d.
1110     01010     010000
 

 26. 

A middle school is expanding to open a high school next year, doubling the total number of students. The school keeps a database in which each student's unique ID number is stored as an 8 bit number called studentID. Before the arrival of the new students almost every 8 bit number has already been assigned to a student. Of the options provided below, which is the smallest change to the way studentID is represented necessary to ensure each incoming student receives a unique ID?
a.
Add a bit to studentID to double the number of IDs that the database can represent
c.
Keep using an 8-bit number for studentID but reserve the first bit to indicate middle school or high school
b.
Double the number of bits in studentID to double the number of IDs that the database can represent
d.
Remove a bit from studentID to make room for incoming students
 

 27. 

A user clicks on a website, and it begins to load immediately, but it takes a long time to load completely and pictures appear slowly, one by one. Which of the following is demonstrated through this situation?
a.
High bandwith, high latency
c.
High bandwith, low latency
b.
Low bandwidth, high latency
d.
Low bandwith, low latency
 

 28. 


8 bits is enough to represent 256 different numbers. How many total bits do you need to represent 512 (twice as many) numbers?
a.
9 bits
c.
16 bits
b.
10 bits
d.
17 bits
 

 29. 

ASCII is a character-encoding scheme that uses a numeric value to represent each character. For example, the uppercase letter "G" is represented by the decimal (base 10) value 71. A partial list of characters and their corresponding ASCII values are shown in the table below.
mc029-1.jpg
ASCII characters can also be represented by binary numbers. According to ASCII character encoding, which of the following letters is represented by the 8-bitbbinary value: 0100 0010
a.
ASCII Character A
c.
ASCII Character D
b.
ASCII Character B
d.
The table does not contain the value represented by the binary number 0100 0010
 

 30. 

Two students have developed a protocol in which they send 4-bit messages to each other. They decide to modify their protocol to start sending 8-bit messages instead. How many more values can be represented in an 8-bit message than a 4-bit message?
a.
2^1 = 2 times as many values 
c.
2^3=8 times as many values
b.
2^2=4 times as many values
d.
2^4=16 times as many values
 

 31. 

Which of the following statements are true about routers and routing on the Internet.
a.
Protocols ensure that a single path between two computers is established before sending packets over it.
c.
A packet traveling between computer on the Internet always travels the same path.
b.
Routers are hierarchical and the “root” router is responsible for communicating to sub-routers the best paths for them to route internet traffic.
d.
Routers act independently and route packets as they see fit.
 

 32. 

The various protocols in use on the internet are said to operate in layers in which the protocol(s) at each layer solve one problem related to networked communication, and higher layers are built on top of, and rely on, the lower layers to do their jobs.

From the list provided choose the two (2) answers that correctly describe which internet protocol relies on the other. For example: if protocol A relies on protocol B, it means that A is a higher level protocol than B, and thus protocol B must exist and work properly in order for protocol A to do its job.
a.
TCP/IP relies on HTTP
c.
DNS runs independently
b.
HTTP relies on TCP/IP
d.
TCP/IP relies on DNS
 

 33. 

A school starts tracking which websites each computer in the school is visiting by monitoring the packets leaving the school. A sample of the information they have collected appears below:

IP Address      Time                  URL
...                  ...                  ...
1.1.1.1         11:05:23.22      example.com
1.5.1.8        11:05:29.71      news.com
1.1.5.1                  11:06:13.48      sports.com
1.5.1.8         11:08:09.95      example.com
...                  ...      ...
1.1.5.1         17:04:29.20      news.com

Which of the following is MOST likely to be answerable using all the data collected by this monitoring?
a.
Which students are visiting social media sites from school
c.
Which programs students are running on the lab computers
b.
Which classes are assigning the most homework using the computer
d.
Which websites are most frequently visited before and after school hours from a school computer
 

 34. 

Which of the following BEST describes how protocols on the Internet (e.g. IP, TCP, HTTP) make use of abstraction to accomplish their respective purposes?
a.
High level protocols take into account specific implementation details of lower level protocols to ensure they are compatible
c.
Low level protocols are written in binary while high level protocls are writtein in hexadecimal
b.
Low level protocols can provide functionality to high level protocols without revealing the details of how this is accomplished
d.
High level protocols can take on the role of low level protocol in the event of failure in the system
 

 35. 

According to the domain name system, which of the following is a subdomain of the domain example.com
a.
about.example.com
c.
example.com.org
b.
example.co.uk
d.
example.org
 

 36. 

Which of the following is NOT true about TCP/IP packets?
a.
Packets are numbered so if they arrive out of order the message car be reassembled
c.
Packets can be routed on different paths from sender to receiver
b.
TCP guarantees that no packets are ever dropped
d.
Messagesare broken into packets to improve reliabilty of the internet
 

 37. 

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) defines the protocols and standards for how the Internet works. The members of the IETF are:
a.
An International coalition of government agencies who oversee the Internet in their countries.
c.
A loosely organized collection of citizens and engineers.
b.
A collection of the leaders of the Tier 1 Internet service providers.
d.
Political leaders and heads of state.
 

 38. 

How does a computer resolve a domain name into an IP address?
a.
It asks a DNS server for the corresponding IP address
c.
It uses a Border Gateway Protocol to get the address from a nearby computer
b.
It scans addresses until it finds the one it's looking for
d.
It creates an IP address for the domain, and shares it with the closest DNS
 

 39. 

The figure represents a network of physically linked computers labeled A through F. A line between two computers indicates that the computers can communicate directly with each other. Any information sent between two computers that are not directly connected must go through at least one other computer. The weight or cost of sending information from one computer to another is indicated by the number above the line.

For example, information can be sent directly between computers A, and B and will cost 5. Information sent between computers A and D must go through either computer C (with total cost 5), or through computer B (with total cost 8)

mc039-1.jpg
Question:

Computer A sends a packet intended to reach computer F. Along its path it arrives at Computer C. Which computer should Computer C forward the packet to in order to use the most cost effective path?
a.
Compter A
c.
Computer D
b.
Computer B
d.
Computer F
 

 40. 

The world is currently in a transition to using IPv6, a newer version of the IP protocol that uses 128-bit addresses instead of 32-bit addresses used by IPv4. What is the main problem that IPv6 was created to solve?
a.
32-bit addresses could not accommodate the increased size and amount of data traveling on the Internet as it has grown in popularit
c.
IPv4 proved unreliable in some cases where network redundancy could not be ensured
b.
IPv6 will allow problems with IPv4’s address hierarchy to be resolved
d.
32-bit addresses could not ensure that every internet-connected device can receive a unique IP address.
 

 41. 

A certain social media Web site allows users to post messages and to comment on other messages that have been posted. When a user posts a message, the message itself is considered data. In addition to the data, the site stores the following metadata.
The time the message was posted
The name of the user who posted the message
The names of any users who comment on the message and the times the comments were made
For which of the following goals would it be more useful to analyze the data instead of the metadata?
a.
To determine the users who post messages most frequently
c.
To determine the topics that many users are posting about
b.
To determine the time of day that the site is most active
d.
To determine which posts from a particular user have received the greatest number of comments
 

 42. 

The table below shows the time a computer system takes to complete a specified task on the customer data of different-sized companies.
text...
mc042-1.jpg
Based on the information in the table, which of the following tasks is likely to take the longest amount of time when scaled up for a very large company of approximately 100,000 customers?
a.
Backing up data
c.
Searching through data
b.
Deleting entries from data
d.
Sorting data
 

 43. 

Which of the following best explains what happens when a new device is connected to the Internet?
a.
A device driver is assigned to the device
c.
A packet number is assigned to the device
b.
An IP address is assigned to the device
d.
A web site is assigned to the device.
 

 44. 

The figure below represents a network of physically linked computers labeled A through G. A line between two computers indicates that the computers can communicate directly with each other. Any information sent between two computers that are not directly connected must go through at least one other computer. For example, information can be sent directly between computers A and B, but information sent between computers A and C must go through other computers.

mc044-1.jpg
What is the minimum number of connections that must be broken or removed in the network before computer E can no longer communicate with computer F?
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 

 45. 

A user enters a Web address in a browser, and a request for a file is sent to a Web server. Which of the following best describes how the file is sent to the user?
a.
The file is broken into packets for transmission. The packets must be reassembled upon receipt.
c.
The server attempts to connect directly to the user’s computer. If the connection is successful, the entire file is sent. If the connection is unsuccessful, an error message is sent to the user.
b.
The file is broken into packets for transmission. The user’s browser must request each packet in order until all packets are received.
d.
The server repeatedly attempts to connect directly to the user’s computer until a connection is made. Once the connection is made, the entire file is sent.
 

 46. 

A cable television company stores information about movie purchases made by subscribers. Each day, the following information is summarized and stored in a publicly available database.
The day and date each movie was purchased
The title of each movie purchased
The cities where subscribers purchased each movie
The number of times each movie was purchased by subscribers in a given city
A sample portion of the database is shown below. The database is sorted by date and movie title.

mc046-1.jpg
Which of the following CANNOT be determined using only the information in the database?
a.
The date when a certain movie was purchased the greatest number of times
c.
The total number of cities in which a certain movie was purchased
b.
The number of movies purchased by an individual subscriber for a particular month
d.
The total number of movies purchased in a certain city during a particular month
 

 47. 

Which of the following is a characteristic of the fault-tolerant nature of routing on the Internet?
a.
The ability to use a hierarchical naming system to avoid naming conflicts
c.
The ability to resolve errors in domain name system (DNS) lookups
b.
The ability to provide data transmission even when some connections have failed
d.
The ability to use multiple protocols such as hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), Internet protocol (IP), and simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) to transfer data
 

 48. 

Two computers are built by different manufacturers. One is running a Web server and the other is running a Web browser. Which of the following best describes the ability of the two computers to communicate with each other across the Internet?
a.
The computers cannot communicate because different manufacturers use different communication protocols.
c.
The computers can communicate directly only if the messages consist of text; other formats cannot be interpreted across computers.
b.
The computers can communicate, but additional hardware is needed to convert data packets from one computer’s protocol to the other computer’s protocol.
d.
The computers can communicate directly because Internet communication uses standard protocols.
 

 49. 

A large data set contains information about all students majoring in computer science in colleges across the United States. The data set contains the following information about each student.

The student’s gender
The state in which the student attends college
The student’s grade point average on a 4.0 scale

Which of the following questions could be answered by analyzing only information in the data set?
a.
Do students majoring in computer science tend to have higher grade point averages than students majoring in other subjects?
c.
What percent of students attending college in a certain state are majoring in computer science?
b.
How many states have a higher percentage of female computer science majors than male computer science majors attending college in that state?
d.
Which college has the highest number of students majoring in computer science?
 

 50. 

A retailer that sells footwear maintains a single database containing records with the following information about each item for sale in the retailer’s store.
Item identification number
Footwear type (sneakers, boots, sandals, etc.)
Selling price (in dollars)
Size
Color
Quantity available
Using only the database, which of the following can be determined?
a.
Which items listed in the database are not currently in the store
c.
Which type of footwear is most popular among adults
b.
Which colors are more popular among men than women
d.
The total number of shoes sold in a particular month
 

 51. 

An online store uses 6-bit binary sequences to identify each unique item for sale. The store plans to increase the number of items it sells and is considering using 7-bit binary sequences. Which of the following best describes the result of using 7-bit sequences instead of 6-bit sequences?
a.
2 more items can be uniquely identified.
c.
2 times as many items can be uniquely identified.
b.
10 more items can be uniquely identified.
d.
10 times as many items can be uniquely identified.
Question Details
 

 52. 

When a cellular telephone user places a call, the carrier transmits the caller’s voice as well as the voice of the person who is called. The encoded voices are the data of the call. In addition to transmitting the data, the carrier also stores metadata. The metadata of the call include information such as the time the call is placed and the phone numbers of both participants. For which of the following goals would it be more useful to computationally analyze the metadata instead of the data?
I. To determine if a caller frequently uses a specific word
II. To estimate the number of phone calls that will be placed next Monday between 10:30 A.M. and noon.
III. To generate a list of criminal suspects when given the telephone number of a known criminal
a.
I only
c.
II and III only
b.
II only
d.
I, II, and III
 

 53. 

A computer program uses 3 bits to represent integers. When the program adds the decimal (base 10) numbers 5 and 3, the result is 0. Which of the following is the best explanation for the result?
a.
An overflow error occurred
c.
the result was affected by lossy data compression.
b.
A round-off error occurred
d.
the result was approximated by afloating-point representation
 

 54. 

Which of the following is considered an unethical use of computer resources?
a.
Downloading freeware or shareware onto your home computer
c.
Purchasing a single-user copy of photo editing software and installing it on all the computers in a lab
b.
Purchasing a game from an app store and downloading it directly to a mobile device
d.
Searching online for an electronic version of a school textbook
 

 55. 

A student is recording a song on her computer. When the recording is finished, she saves a copy on her computer. The student notices that the saved copy is of lower quality than the original recording. Which of the following could be a possible explanation for the difference in sound quality
a.
The song was saved using fewer bits per second than the original song
c.
The song was saved using a lossless compression technique
b.
The song was saved using more bits per second than the orignial song
d.
Some information is lost every time a file is saved from one location to another.
 

 56. 

Computers are often used to search through large sets of data to find useful patterns in the data. Which of the following tasks is NOT an example where searching for patterns is needed to produce useful information?
a.
A credit card company analyzing credit card purchases to indetify potential fraudulent charges
c.
A high school analyzing student grades to identify the students with the top ten highest grade point averages
b.
A grocery store analyzing customers’ pas purchases to suggest new products the customer may be interested in
d.
An online retailer analyzing customers’ viewing habits to suggest other products based on the purchasing history of other customers
 

 57. 

An internet service provider is considering an update to its servers that would save copies of the Web pages most frequently visited by each user. Which of the following is LEAST likely to occur as a result of the update?
a.
Average response time for user requests might decrease
c.
Storage requirements for the servers might increase
b.
Privacy of users might be negatively affected
d.
Web sites that are not visited frequently might no longer be accessible to users.
 

 58. 

Two computers are built by different manufacturers. One is running a Web server and the other is running a Web browser. Which of the following best describes the ability of the two computers to communicate with each other across the Internet?
a.
The computers cannot communicate because different manufacturers use different communication protocols.
c.
The computers can communicate directly only if the messages consist of text; other formats cannot be interpreted across computers.
b.
The computers can communicate, but additional hardware is needed to convert data packets from one computer’s protocol to the other computer’s protocol
d.
The computers can communicate directly because Internet communication uses standard protocols.
 

 59. 

Which of the following statements is true?
a.
Every problem can be solved with an algorithm for all possible inputs, in a reasonable amount of time, using a modern computer
c.
Every problem can be solved with an algorithm for all possible inputs, but some of algorithms have not be discovered yet
b.
Every problem can be solved with an algorithm for all possible inputs, but some will take more than 100 years, even with the fastest possible computer
d.
There exist problems that no algorithm will ever be albe to solve for all possible inputs
 

 60. 

A city government is attempting to reduce the digital divide between groups with differing access to computing and the Internet. Which of the following activities is LEAST likely to be effective in this purpose?
a.
Holding basic computer classes at community centers
c.
Putting all government forms on the city Website
b.
Providing free wireless Internet connections at locations in low-income neighborhoods
d.
Requirnig that every city school has computers that meet a minimum hardware and software standard
 



 
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